Explainer: A Year Of Benghazi Myths
On the evening of September 11, 2012, a heavily armed group of terrorists allegedly led  by members of the Islamic militant group Ansar al-Sharia attacked a U.S. diplomatic mission in Benghazi, Libya. U.S. Ambassador to Libya Christopher Stevens and Foreign Service Officer Sean Smith were killed in the assault. The remaining members of the mission were evacuated to a nearby CIA facility, which came under artillery fire early the next morning. Glen Doherty and Tyrone Woods, both CIA contractors who had served as U.S. Navy Seals, were killed in that attack.
At roughly 10:24 p.m.*  on the east coast, Mitt Romney's campaign released a statement accusing President Obama of "sympathizing" with the attackers; this politicization was immediately echoed by the right-wing noise machine.
Over the past year, conservative media figures and activists, led by Fox News, have repeatedly created and promoted lies, smears, and conspiracies related to the Benghazi attack. While the attack raised meaningful questions about how we can best protect U.S. diplomats in dangerous environments, the right has instead sought to use what happened in Benghazi and in the days that followed to bring down President Obama, former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton, and other members of the administration.
Much of the criticism has revolved around two lines of attack: That the Obama administration downplayed the role that terrorists played in the attack, and that the administration held back additional U.S. military forces that could have been used to save lives. In reality, President Obama referred to the attack as an "act of terror" during his September 12 Rose Garden speech, and U.S. officials have made clear that all available and appropriate forces were sent as quickly as possible. As former diplomatic security agent Fred Burton and journalist Samuel M. Katz wrote  in their book Under Fire:
There was never a question concerning U.S. resolve or the overall capabilities of the U.S. military to respond to Benghazi. There was, however, nothing immediate about an immediate response. There were logistics and host-nation approvals to consider. An immediate response was hampered by the equation of geography and logistics.
In this report, Media Matters chronicles:
Things Fall Apart 
Shortly after reports that at least one diplomat had died during the Benghazi attacks, Mitt Romney's campaign issued a statement politicizing that tragedy by attacking President Obama. Even as much of the media condemned Romney's action, Fox News and other right-wing outlets rallied around him, either falsifying the timeline to claim that Romney had issued his statement before it was clear an American had been killed or promoting the notion that the administration was at fault for the attacks.
Conservative media claimed that Obama and Clinton had ignored warnings the embassy could be attacked; that the attacks were the result of Obama repeatedly apologizing for America; and that Obama did not attend daily intelligence briefings and thus was negligent. In fact, even the Republican chairman of the House Intelligence Committee acknowledged that he had seen no indication that the administration had information that could have prevented the attacks; the claim that Obama apologizes for America is a myth; and Obama prefers to read a written daily intelligence briefing.
- Fox Politicizes Violence In Egypt And Libya To Revive False Obama Apology Narrative 
- Fox Scrambles Timeline To Excuse Romney's Embassy Statement 
- Right-Wing Media Point Fingers At Obama For Libya, Egypt Attacks 
- Fox Rallies Around Romney For Widely Criticized Libya Remarks 
- Right-Wing Media Dubiously Accuse Hillary Clinton Of Ignoring Warnings Of Embassy Violence 
After U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations Susan Rice appeared on the Sunday political talk shows on September 16 to discuss Benghazi, the Obama administration came under fire for not calling the attack a planned act of "terrorism," and for engaging in a politically motivated "cover-up." But Rice made clear during her appearances that her comments were based on "our current best assessment" that the Libya attack was not premeditated, acknowledged that the perpetrators were "extremists," and said that future investigations and analyses by intelligence services "will tell us with certainty what transpired." It would later be revealed that her suggestion that the attack was linked to an anti-Islam video that had embroiled the Middle East came from talking points generated by the CIA.
- Fox Skips The Investigation To Bash Obama For Not Calling Libya Attack Terrorism 
- Fox Falsely Suggests White House "Changing The Story" On Libya Terrorism Investigation 
- Fox Conspiracy Theory: Obama Admin. Is Engaged In "Cover-Up" Of Libya Consulate Attacks 
- Chris Wallace Hypes Fox's Conspiracy Theory About Libya Consulate Attack 
- Myths And Facts About The Benghazi Attack And Protests In The Middle East 
Throughout late September and early October, as Republican congressman Jason Chaffetz, one of Romney's top campaign surrogates, led the first hearing into the security situation in Benghazi prior to the attack, conservative media figures continued to claim that Obama had allowed the attacks to happen through negligence and a failed foreign policy. Critics pushing this claim ignored the multiple terror attacks that occurred during the Bush administration.
- Jennifer Rubin: Obama's Terrorism Record Worse Than Bush's (9-11 Doesn't Count) 
- Wash. Post's Krauthammer Pushes Anti-Obama Myth Debunked By The Post Itself 
- Fox Pushes Lie That Obama Isn't Receiving His Intel Briefings 
- Will The Media Help Romney Surrogate Catapult Bogus Libya Hearings Into Big News? 
- Fox Favorite Jason Chaffetz And The Right-Wing Media's Libya Hearings 
In a series of mid-October interviews, Clinton took responsibility for the Benghazi attacks, saying: "Listen, this is my State Department. I take responsibility. Security for the U.S. diplomatic posts is a State Department function." The right-wing media responded by misrepresenting her comments, falsely portraying her as trying to deflect blame, and lobbing sexist attacks.
- Fox's Ralph Peters On Benghazi: "The Blood Of The Ambassador And The Other Three Americans Is On Hillary Clinton's Hands" 
- Fox's Ingraham Misrepresents Clinton Comments On Benghazi 
- Right-Wing Media Misrepresent Secretary Clinton's Comments About Benghazi Attacks 
- WSJ Calls Clinton "Mute" On Benghazi Attack Days After She Spoke To Paper About It 
- Right-Wing Media Responds To Clinton's Libya Statement With Sexist Attacks 
During the October 16 presidential debate, moderator Candy Crowley corrected Romney's false claim that Obama did not refer to the Benghazi attack as an "act of terror" during a speech from White House Rose Garden the day after the attack. Conservatives quickly moved to rewrite the timeline in order to deny what Obama had said, attack Crowley, and defend Romney. In fact, Obama had clearly called the attack an "act of terror" in his September 12 Rose Garden address on the attacks and during two September 13 campaign events.
- Transcript Truthers: Conservatives Deny Obama Called Libya Attack An "Act Of Terror" 
- Fox Cherry Picks Obama Quotes To Rehabilitate Romney's Claims On Libya 
- Fox News Rewrites Obama Timeline On Libya Terrorism Comments 
- On CNN, Jennifer Rubin Flat-Out Lies About Obama's Benghazi Statement 
- Fox Spent Four Hours Trying To Explain Away Obama's "Acts Of Terror" Comments 
In late October, Fox News reported that CIA operators in Benghazi had been told by their superiors to "stand down" rather than rush to the aid of their colleagues in the diplomatic compound. The right-wing media used the report to allege that President Obama and his administration had decided to willingly "sacrifice Americans" in Benghazi. But the CIA denied that any stand-down orders had ever been given, no additional evidence has ever emerged suggesting such orders were given, and reinforcements actually arrived from Tripoli in time for the second attack on the CIA facility.
- Fox's New Low: Accusing Obama Admin. Of Abandoning Americans To Die In Libya 
- Fox & Friends Helps Second Guess Military's Response To Benghazi Attack 
- Lou Dobbs Forgets To Report CIA's Denial That It Ordered Personnel To Abandon Americans In Benghazi 
- Hyping Benghazi Madness, Right-Wing Projects Its Darkest Obama Fantasies 
- Fox's Wallace Forwards Right-Wing Myth That Obama Abandoned Americans In Benghazi 
Following the early November revelation of Gen. David Petraeus' affair with his biographer and his subsequent resignation as CIA director, right-wing media claimed that Obama had been blackmailing Petraeus to keep him from "spilling the beans" about Benghazi. There was no evidence that this claim was true and the charge was widely condemned by more credible outlets.
- Ralph Peters' Conspiracy Theory: Obama's "Tough Chicago Guys" Knew Of Petraeus Affair, Held It "Until They Needed To Play The Card" 
- Fox's Doocy: Was Petraeus "Being Blackmailed By The White House To Toe The Company Line" On Benghazi? 
- Limbaugh Theory: White House Is Blackmailing Petraeus Over Benghazi Testimony 
- Limbaugh Admits His Baseless Theory About Petraeus Testimony Was Wrong 
- Michael Scheuer On Fox: Obama Forced Petraeus To Resign Because He Wouldn't Take Responsibility For Benghazi 
In November, Susan Rice's name was floated in the press as a potential nominee for Secretary of State. The right-wing media quickly joined an effort led by Sens. John McCain, Lindsay Graham, and Kelly Ayotte to prevent that nomination from coming to pass by attacking Rice for her comments about Benghazi during her September 16 Sunday show appearances.
Rice was criticized for using a set of administration talking points characterizing the attacks as stemming from a spontaneous demonstration. A draft version of those talking points had included language suggesting the perpetrators had been affiliated with Al Qaeda, and the right-wing media said the removal of that language was part of a political cover-up. In reality, as Petraeus had previously testified, changes were made to the talking points in order to protect the criminal investigation and our intelligence-gathering process.
- Fox Tries To Prevent Susan Rice Nomination With Libya Smears 
- Fox Ignores Its Own Reporting To Sow Confusion About Benghazi Talking Points 
- NY Times' Maureen Dowd Defies Her Paper's Reporting To Attack Susan Rice Over Benghazi 
- Media Promote GOP's Witch Hunt Against Susan Rice 
- Myths And Facts About The Right-Wing Witch Hunt Against Susan Rice 
In late December, shortly before she was scheduled to testify before Congress regarding Benghazi, Hillary Clinton fainted and suffered a concussion, and was subsequently hospitalized with a potentially life-threatening blood clot in her head. The right-wing media accused her of faking the concussion to avoid testifying on Benghazi.
- Fox News Accuses Hillary Clinton Of Faking Concussion 
- Fox's Evening Shows Mock Hillary Clinton's Concussion 
- "Did She Fake It?": LA Times Mainstreams Clinton Concussion Conspiracy 
- On Fox Business, McGuirk Defends Clinton Health Conspiracies: "The Clintons Reap What They Sow" 
- Fox's The Five Tries To Defend Its Mockery Of Clinton's Concussion 
When Hillary Clinton expressed sorrow for the Benghazi victims and anger at members of Congress who offered spurious criticisms during her January 23 congressional testimony, she was accused of faking emotion. Her testimony was attacked with falsehoods and innuendo -- such as the claim that Clinton "made no mention" of the real time video her office allegedly had during the attack -- aimed at pushing the baseless conspiracy that the administration had covered up what happened in Benghazi. In fact, Clinton made clear during her testimony that the State Department did not have access to real time video.
- Fox's Ingraham Suggests Clinton Was "Lip-Synching Crying" At Benghazi Hearing 
- Limbaugh: At Benghazi Hearing, Sec. Clinton "Opened Up Crying, Which Is Part Of The Script" 
- Hannity: Sec. Clinton's Anger At Benghazi Hearing Was "Staged, Probably At The Direction Of" James Carville 
- New York Post's Sexist Clinton Cover Gets Fox Host Chris Wallace's Approval 
- Fox News Edits Clinton Testimony To Claim She Never Addressed Benghazi Monitoring 
After Defense Secretary Leon Panetta sat for an interview and testified before Congress about Benghazi in early February, the right-wing media selectively edited his remarks to portray President Obama as "virtually absent" from the response to the attack. In fact, Panetta testified that White House officials were kept informed of events throughout the incident.
- Fox Omits Contradictory Statement On Benghazi That Undermines Talking Point 
- Conservative Media Selectively Crop Panetta's Congressional Testimony To Attack Obama On Benghazi 
- Fox's Hannity Joins Right-Wing Media In Selectively Editing Panetta's Testimony 
- Jennifer Rubin's Lies Upon Lies About Benghazi 
- Fox Finds New Way To Twist Panetta's Benghazi Testimony 
In April, Republicans on five congressional committees released a report asserting that Clinton had lied when she told Congress she was unaware of requests for additional security at the Benghazi compound. According to the report, Clinton had personally read and signed off on a cable responding to one such missive. Right-wing media subsequently pushed this claim in attacking Clinton as a liar. In fact, there is nothing to indicate Clinton had reviewed the document -- all messages from the State Department to diplomatic facilities abroad are sent out over the secretary's signature according to tradition.
- Fox News Gets Its Politicized Benghazi Report 
- Reports Undermine Fox's New Clinton Smear Over Benghazi 
- Fox's Kelly Interviews Rep. Chaffetz And Ignores His Hypocrisy Over Embassy Security 
- Benghazi Review Panel Member: Fox-Promoted GOP Claims Against Clinton Are "Total Bullshit" 
- Wash. Post's Fact Checker Further Discredits Fox-Promoted GOP Smear Against Clinton 
In late April, Fox News' Special Report with Bret Baier hosted a confidential "Benghazi source" for a three-part interview to express his opinion that the Obama administration could have saved the staff that were killed during the attacks. That opinion had been refuted by military experts and nonpartisan analysis that had already made clear that no additional forces could have reached Benghazi in time, and the source's claims were swiftly debunked by experts who pointed out that the claims were "pure speculation and not based on any real facts."
- Fox Uses Unnamed Source To Revive Discredited Myth That Response To Benghazi Was Inadequate 
- Foreign Policy Casts More Doubt On Fox's Benghazi Source 
- The Newsy Nonsense Of Fox News' Benghazi "Insider" 
In early May, The Weekly Standard published the CIA's original draft of the talking points that were used by Susan Rice during her Sunday show interviews. The right-wing media claimed the document proved the Obama administration had concocted the link between the attack and an anti-Islam video cited by Susan Rice and other administration officials. In fact, that document made clear that the CIA itself believed there was a link between the two. The draft said that the attacks were "spontaneously inspired by the protests at the U.S. Embassy in Cairo" -- protests that came in response to the video.
- Weekly Standard Accidentally Disproves Central Right-Wing Benghazi Claim 
- Fox News Falsely Suggests CIA Never Linked Benghazi To Anti-Islam Video 
Conservative media coverage of congressional leaks leading up to a May 8 Benghazi "whistleblower" House hearing and the hearing itself featured falsehoods, conspiracies, and hysterics, including attempts to compare Benghazi to Watergate. Much of the coverage revolved around claims that Libya's deputy chief of mission Gregory Hicks believed that a "stand down" order had been given to Special Forces in Tripoli to prevent them from aiding the diplomats in Benghazi. In fact, the Special Forces unit stayed in Tripoli in case it was needed to respond to an attack there, if the unit had tried to reach Benghazi it would have arrived hours after the attack concluded, and the head of Special Forces in Tripoli subsequently testified that no "stand down" order was given.
- Right-Wing Media Push New Benghazi Myths Ahead Of Hearings 
- The Fox News Campaign To Tie Benghazi To Watergate 
- Gen. Peggy Noonan Thinks Benghazi Was Mishandled 
- The Truth About The Right's Latest Benghazi Attacks 
- Robert Gates Criticizes Conservatives' "Cartoonish Impression" Of Military Support For Benghazi 
Basing their claims in part on the allegations of Victoria Toensing, a partisan lawyer who was involved in attempts to drum up scandals during the Clinton era, right-wing media (as well as New York Times columnist Maureen Dowd) claimed that Hicks had been "muzzled" and then demoted by his State Department superiors, including Clinton aide Cheryl Mills, for giving information about Benghazi to Congress. In fact, Hicks spoke to Congressional investigators, the FBI, and twice with the State Department's investigators. In his testimony he acknowledged receiving no direct criticism from Mills. And he was not "demoted" but rather testified that he asked not to go back to Libya and was placed in a temporary position. He retained his rank and salary, and is waiting for a suitable position to come open.
- The Benghazi "Whistleblower" Cover-Up That Wasn't 
- Victoria Toensing Should Confer With Her Client 
- Cheryl Mills' (Non) Threatening Phone Call 
- Maureen Dowd's "Obfuscation" Of The Facts On Hicks And Benghazi 
On May 10, ABC News' Jonathan Karl published an "exclusive" report based on 14 versions of the Benghazi talking points, as well as summaries of emails between the aides who edited them. According to Karl, the emails showed that the talking points were "scrubbed of terror reference[s]" at the behest of the State Department and White House. In reality, the documents provided little new information, as Petraeus had testified months ago that the intelligence community signed off on the final draft of the talking points, and that references to terrorist groups in Libya were removed in order to avoid tipping off those groups. The report nonetheless generated a media firestorm with commentators claiming the changes had been made for political purposes and highlighting Petraeus's ambivalence with the final set of talking points.
The subsequent release of the actual emails showed that the email summaries ABC had reviewed were misleading, making it appear that the White House was more interested in removing mentions of specific terrorist groups for political reasons than was actually the case. They also showed that Petraeus was actually unhappy with the talking points because they downplayed the role of the anti-Islam video in the attack, undermining the right-wing narrative. ABC News later published an extensive editor's note on their initial story, and Karl apologized for getting the story wrong.
- ABC's "Exclusive" Benghazi Report Shows Nothing New 
- Why Petraeus Didn't Like The Benghazi Talking Points 
- CNN: Media Outlets Misrepresented White House Benghazi Email 
- New Talking Point Revelations Should End Benghazi Witch Hunt 
- ABC's Jon Karl Tells CNN He Regrets Getting Benghazi Talking Points Reporting Wrong 
Right-wing media panned the independent report of the State Department's Accountability Review Board while demanding the appointment of a special prosecutor to investigate Benghazi. The ARB's report was a credible, non-partisan account from Thomas Pickering, a career diplomat, and retired Adm. Mike Mullen that sought to establish what went wrong in Benghazi and how to better protect U.S. diplomats in the future. The appointment of a special prosecutor would likely result in a permanent, partisan attempt to damage the Obama administration.
- Right-Wing Benghazi Witch Hunt Sets Sights On Pickering, Mullen 
- Fox Turns To Whitewater Deputy Counsel To Begin Campaign For Special Prosecutor On Benghazi, IRS 
- Desperate For A Scandal, Fox's Dobbs Attacks Obama's "Inner Nixon" 
- With Benghazi, Republicans Recruit Beltway Press For Another Whitewater Production 
- Tom Pickering Has Been Shut Out Of The Benghazi Debate 
After Obama recalled during a May 13 press conference how he had previously described the attacks in the context of terrorism, both right-wing media and mainstream outlets pretended that he had not. In fact, as he mentioned, Obama called the attacks an "act of terror" on September 12 and September 13.
- Fox's Attempted Revival Of Transcript Trutherism Falls Flat 
- Fox And Issa Claim There's A Difference Between An "Act Of Terror" And A Terrorist Attack 
- Fox Deceptively Edits Obama Remarks To Portray Him Dismissing Benghazi Attack Victims 
- John Bolton's Transcript Trutherism: It's "Ridiculous" To Claim Obama Immediately Labeled Benghazi "Act of Terror" 
- Major Newspapers Whitewash Obama's "Act Of Terror" Assertion 
From mid-May through June, with mainstream outlets having caught on to the lack of evidence behind the right-wing's Benghazi smears, Fox began throwing out whatever allegations it could and hoping that something would stick. These included pretending that President Obama and National Security Advisor Tom Donilon were absent during the attack (in fact, a photo shows them discussing the situation in the Oval Office); pretending that Ambassador Pickering is reluctant to testify on Benghazi (in fact, he had asked to testify publicly); and smearing former State Department spokesperson Victoria Nuland for misleading the American people about the Benghazi attacks through her role in editing the draft talking points (in fact, she expressed concern that revealing in the talking points the names of terrorist organizations suspected of being involved would jeopardize a criminal investigation).
- Fox Outrage Machine Gets Desperate To Resuscitate Benghazi "Scandal" 
- Fox Attempts To Reinvigorate Its Campaign Against Susan Rice 
- Fox Fabricates Pickering's Reluctance To Testify On Benghazi Review 
- Fox Smears State Department Official Amid Nomination For Role In Benghazi Talking Points 
- Fox Drags Another Obama Official Into Manufactured Benghazi Scandal 
- Right-Wing Media Call Susan Rice's Elevation To National Security Advisor An Insult To America 
With their scandal faltering, in late June Fox put together a Benghazi special highlighting a series of false claims and misinformation that they had hyped for month, including the exclusive report that "sources" say that stand down orders were given. The previous week, Republican-led House Armed Services Committee acknowledged no such order had been given, citing testimony from the commander of the Special Forces team in Tripoli.
- Fox Responds To Gen. Dempsey Debunking Benghazi "Stand Down" Myth With A False Poll Question 
- No Benghazi "Stand Down" Order Was Given: Another Fox Narrative Falls Apart 
- Fox News, Home Of Benghazi Myths, To Air One-Hour Special On Benghazi 
- Fox News' Latest Benghazi "Smokescreen" 
In July, Rep. Steve Stockman (R-TX) circulated a discharge petition for House Resolution 36, which called for a select committee to investigate the attacks in Benghazi. (A discharge petition is a parliamentary procedure that takes a resolution out of committee and brings it directly to the floor for a vote.) Stockman's discharge petition was opposed by House Speaker John Boehner (R-OH) and HR 36's sponsor Rep. Frank Wolf (R-VA) and thus had no chance of passing. But Fox heavily promoted the effort, and Fox contributor Allen West was a featured speaker at an anti-Obama group's rally calling for the petition's passage.
- Fox Contributor Allen West Featured Speaker At Anti-Obama Group's Benghazi Rally 
- Fox News' Allen West Accuses GOP Of Aiding In Benghazi "Cover-Up" 
- Fox Heavily Promotes Benghazi Select Committee Petition That Has "Zero Chance Of Passing" 
- Fox Terms Obama's Economic Address As "Same Old Speech" Before Pivoting To Same Old "Scandals" 
In early August, a fringe conservative website reported based on anonymous sources that Obama adviser Valerie Jarrett was the decision-maker during the Benghazi attacks and issued a stand down order to American armed forces that night. This was not a credible claim -- its author had a history of making absurd, hyperbolic claims about Obama, his sources were unnamed, and numerous military figures have publicly testified no stand down order was ever given. But Rush Limbaugh, and later Fox News' Steve Doocy, nevertheless floated the conspiracy.
- Limbaugh Uses Fringe Benghazi Conspiracy To Baselessly Attack Valerie Jarrett 
- Fox's Doocy Floats Evidence-Free Conspiracy Theory From Limbaugh About Valerie Jarrett And Benghazi 
In the week leading up to the anniversary of the Benghazi attacks, Fox continued to push a variety of false claims about the story. Notably, the network hyped a misleading ABC interview with Hicks in which he defied his own sworn testimony to claim he had been "punished" for speaking out about Benghazi. Fox's campaign went so far as to equate the Benghazi attacks, in which four Americans were killed, with the September 11, 2001 attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon, in which nearly 3,000 Americans were killed.
- Fox's Karl Rove Shouts Lies About Benghazi 
- On ABC's This Week, Gregory Hicks Contradicts Himself While Pushing Benghazi Myths 
- Fox's MacCallum: "Why Doesn't The Administration Want To Know" What Happened In Benghazi? 
- Days Before Benghazi Anniversary, Fox Still Can't Find A Scandal 
- Fox's MacCallum: "There's A Feeling" That Obama Administration Thinks Pursuing Benghazi Suspects Is "Annoying"